Sunday, May 21, 2017

My literary fiction


I'm using the word "fiction" the same way that librarians use it.  Every novel is fiction, including  Margaret Mitchell's book "Gone with the Wind", even though her inspiration was an oral history of the real events of the Civil War in America.  All of the Sherlock Holmes stories that I loved as a young man were fiction, even though the author might have known a real person who had the skills of a detective.


All of the stories that parents read to small children are fiction.

Parents have been reading stories like these to their children for a very long time.

A very long time.
I have written some fiction, too, but because my main interest is politics and political science, my stories include some names that might be familiar to you.  One story, for instance, includes a character named Obama.

As the author of literary fiction, I can invent characters and give them whatever personality traits I choose, even if a real person, with the same name, has a different personality.  This literary character, named Obama, is out-of-touch with reality.  Even though he's the American President, he doesn't feel the suffering of other people as long as he doesn't suffer personally.  I chose the character's name and his personality, and I'm perfectly within my legal rights to do so.

Another fictional story takes place at a press conference where Jan, an Arizona Governor, tells the small crowd that Christians can be discriminated against in her state.  During this event, one of her aides is standing next to her and talking to her while she speaks, the low-technology equivalent of having a news anchor reporting an on-camera story while wearing an electronic earpiece.


In 2013, a Saudi Arabian cleric said that female infants should wear the head-to-toe covering called a burka.  I wrote about this in a short essay on this blog.  No matter how ridiculous this story sounds, it is not fiction, because the cleric is a real person, and he really did make this ridiculous determination, according to this February 2013 story, which is linked in my essay.

All of the stories, including the next three, that were written by the late Tom Clancy (my current favorite author) are fiction.


... although he also wrote some non-fiction books about various types of military units, including the following books.




These are my fictional stories.

The name of each story is a clickable link to that page.
Name of the page Publication Date Summary
I am Your New President May 5, 2013 A dictator peacefully takes over America
I regret to inform you September 21, 2013 A character named Obama talks to people in Colorado from a helicopter, while their towns are suffering from a flood.
Please pray for Governor Jan Brewer March 2, 2014 The Arizona Governor talks at a press conference and an aide, standing next to her, quietly responds to her comments.
If I had a son December 22, 2014 Two members of President Obama's cabinet paraphrase the President's famous line, "If I had a son, he would look like Trayvon Martin".

I have written blog pages that have titles that sound like a fiction book, but these pages have factual news articles in them.  An example is a page, published in September 2015 called The Clinton Empire Strikes Back.

This page includes this link to a September 2015 story that was published in the Orlando Sentinel.  This news story mentions "a charitable foundation" that could be the Clinton Foundation.


Notes

I finished writing "I Am Your New President" on May 3, 2013, but I delayed publishing it until May 5th, because that date is an important date in world history.  The story is in the form of an open letter to America dated May 5th.

Colorado had real floods while I was writing the second fiction piece.  The page includes real photos of real flooding in that state.

Governor Jan Brewer really did veto a law that was passed by her state legislature.  This law would have protected the right of Christians and others to operate their businesses in accordance with the principles of their religions.

No florist, baker, or photographer should be forced to participate in a gay wedding by providing their professional services, when other florists, bakers, and photographers in that same geographic area are willing to service that wedding.

Do you want to be the photographer who is ordered, by some civil rights commission, to photograph this group of children attending a gay wedding, especially if all of the people who attend this wedding, including these children, are also nudists?


Remember, if you say 'yes', you will be taking pictures of naked children.

Photographers, bakers, florists, and other professionals must have the right to say 'no' to any request.

Please excuse my passion for a blog page that isn't fiction.

Saturday, November 12, 2016

What you are and what you aren't


Learning a language, piece by piece

Every young child, as he grows up, learns to pronounce words and he learns what they mean.  Sometime later, he learns that some words are the opposite of other words.  For example, "male" and "female" are opposites for each other.  Each of these words are called an "antonym" for each other, as opposed to a synonym, which is one word that has the same meaning as another word.

Here are some other antonyms.
tall short



in out



happy sad
fat thin



light dark



open closed
fast slow



wet dry



hot cold

More pieces of the language

Later, the child learns that the world isn't all black and white.  A building that he thought was tall, just because it had 10 stories, is now not as tall when he finds out that another building has 30 stories.

Some children will continue to describe a 10-story building as tall and then use another word, such as "super-tall" or "gigantic" to describe a 30-story building.  Other children will say that both buildings are tall, without judging one building against the other one.  Still later, the child will learn various ways of measuring the height of a building, either by counting the number of stories or by using words like "feet", "yards", or "kilometers".

More pieces

Still later, the child will learn that some words, used by a person who describes himself as a member of a group, describe people who aren't in that group.  Some of the following words are meant to express negative emotions, ranging from mild distaste to outright hatred, while other words in the following list simply help to define one's own group by naming the people who aren't in it.
sailor land-lover (sometimes pronounced "landlubber")
person in military service civilian
Muslim infidel (a synonym of the Christian word "heretic")
Jew Gentile
heterosexual homosexual (see Note 1 below)
law-abiding citizen felon (if the person is in prison)
law-abiding citizen ex-con (if the person is out of prison)
farmer cowboy (see Note 2 below)
rancher sod-buster (Note 2 applies here also)
U.S. Citizen foreigner (if they're not in the country)
U.S. Citizen alien (used to describe a foreigner who is in the country)
Note 1. The word "homosexual" is an accurate description of someone who has a sexual attraction exclusively for someone of the same sex. The word "gay", which is often used to describe someone who is not heterosexual, is often inaccurate.

In the photo on the right, Anderson Cooper is sad, but he is still a homosexual.

Note 2. The 1955 movie Oklahoma had a scene that included a description of the rivalry between "the farmer and the cowman".

This 6-minute video shows that scene.  The description is in the form of a song that is sung during a community dance.

The rivalry was more-or-less settled when barbed wire was invented in the second half of the 19th century.

This is the third paragraph of the page on the History Channel website that shows its' invention in 1873
The effect of this simple invention on the life in the Great Plains was huge.  Since the plains were largely treeless, a farmer who wanted to construct a fence had little choice but to buy expensive and bulky wooden rails shipped by train and wagon from distant forests.  Without the alternative offered by cheap and portable barbed wire, few farmers would have attempted to homestead on the Great Plains, since they could not have afforded to protect their farms from grazing herds of cattle and sheep.  Barbed wire also brought a speedy end to the era of the open-range cattle industry.  Within the course of just a few years, many ranchers discovered that thousands of small homesteaders were fencing over the open range where their cattle had once freely roamed, and that the old technique of driving cattle over miles of unfenced land to railheads in Dodge City or Abilene was no longer possible.

Another inaccurate antonym - "Never-Trumper"

The inspiration for this page were these words, which were spoken (I'm paraphrasing) by radio talk-show host Dennis Prager last night.

"I don't know the Never-Trumpers very well.  I want to know the Never-Trumpers."

In contrast to the list of antonyms above, the hyphenated word "Never-Trumper" is sometimes used by people to describe themselves.

My own Twitter account (@BennyTheKite) has these words superimposed on them: "Never Trump", yet I do not consider myself part of either of these violent anti-Donald-Trump protest groups.
10-minute video
20-minute video

Attention, Dennis Prager

If Mr. Prager is reading this page, I would like to tell him more about my own personal form of the opposition.

Link to the Google account for +The Dennis Prager Show 

Unlike any of these people, my reasons for opposing Donald's candidacy were expressed on Twitter and on a couple of blog pages, not during any of his campaign events.

The term "Never-Trumper" is a bit misleading, and I apologize for it.  A more accurate description of my political philosophy would include this statement.

"I am a supporter of U.S. Senator and presidential candidate Ted Cruz."

Link to the Google account for +Ted Cruz

The Senator has two Twitter accounts @tedcruz and @SenTedCruz.  Both of them followed my Twitter account (@BennyTheKite) in early 2014, and they still follow my account today.  Later, after he became a presidential candidate, my account was also followed by other accounts that were part of his campaign to become president.  Link to a blog page, on this blog, that lists my VIP Twitter followers.

I have had multiple conversations on Twitter with other well-known people, including Montel Williams and Missouri State Senator Eric Schmitt, who is now the winner of a campaign to become the Missouri State Treasurer.  Unfortunately, I have not had any conversations, on Twitter or anywhere else, with the Senator from Texas, so I cannot be certain why those two Twitter accounts followed my Twitter account.  My best guess is that the reason why he did is because he read some of my early blog pages and some of my early Twitter remarks.

These are three tweets, part of a set of six, that Mr. Prager, who is Jewish, posted on his account.  The person he references in the first tweet is Hillary Clinton.  If you click on the link at the end of each of these tweets, you will be able to see them, as they appeared on his Twitter account.





Note to Mr. Prager.  I had two reasons to be opposed to the candidacy of Donald Trump.  One is based on my reading of history.  When political candidates have a large and dedicated group of followers and a lack of humility, then if they get elected, their arrogance often becomes a force that hurts their own city or country.  Adolph Hitler's election as Germany's Chancellor, and later, its' President, was a complicated process, judging by this page that explains the process, but after he was elected, during a world-wide economic depression, he blamed Jews (and a few other groups of people) for Germany's poor economic health, and he then severely punished all of those groups by killing large numbers of them.  In China during the 1950s, Mao Tse-Tung killed large numbers of his own country.  In fact, Mao killed more than twice as many people as Hitler.

Donald Trump allowed and sometimes encouraged actual undemocratic behavior in his followers and supporters.  They were often verbally abusive to other Republican presidential candidates and their supporters.  I saw this abusive behavior first-hand in April 2016 when I tried to be elected as a delegate to the Republican National Convention.  Whether you think that America is a democracy or a republic, one of the features of our system is a willingness to listen to other people's ideas.  This concept was missing that day when I tried to participate in America's political process.  The room was filled with many people who liked or even loved Donald.  None of them were willing to listen to the ideas of anyone who wasn't a Trump supporter.

Donald's reaction to the undemocratic behavior of his supporters is shown in this 48-second video.

He knows that he can depend on them to hurt any opposition that he has.
America has a very powerful military force, backed up by a set of political principles that are the envy of many other political leaders.  America would also have a strong economy if we didn't give away so much of our national wealth to other countries, many of which do not thank us with America-friendly policies.

During the 2016 presidential campaign, Senator Cruz demonstrated a commitment to the principles that I believe a president should have.  Those principles are in the Oath of Office that every president swears to obey.

B. Hussein Obama took that oath twice and broke both of those promises.  Donald Trump is scheduled to take the same oath in a little over two months from now.  I wanted Senator Cruz to be elected and to take the oath, for many reasons.


There's one more big difference between Donald Trump and Senator Cruz.

The words that Donald said in the cartoon above are similar to the actual words that he said about the Senator during the campaign, but the Senator never called Donald a sniveling coward.

The Senator did say that Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell lied to Senator Cruz and a group of other Republican Senators.  Link to a July 24, 2015 Politico story.  However, telling one lie doesn't make a person a liar.  Senator Cruz knew this important distinction and was very careful in his use of his words.

The Senator is a gentleman.  This personal quality would have been one of the many reasons why he would have been a better president than Donald Trump, whose personal qualities are horribly abusive, judging by many of his very public statements during his own campaign.

I am an American citizen who loves his country.

I was a "Never-Trumper", but I cannot change the result of the election that took place last week, and I will not participate in any mass-protest against his election.

I still am a big fan of U.S. Senator Ted Cruz.  If he does not become a justice on the U.S. Supreme Court or a high-ranking member of the new government, I will do what I can to help him be reelected as a U.S. Senator in 2018.

That's what I am, and that's what I am not.

Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Water Economics for students


For older students and adults

This is the link to my essay Water Economics, which was published in a different one of my blogs in August 2012.  That page has been read more than 170,000 times, and that is more than half of the readership of that blog.


Chapter 1. The Wet Planet.

The earth is very wet.

Three-quarters of the surface of the earth is covered in water.  The amount of water in all the world's oceans, lakes, rivers, and the clouds in the sky is about 330 cubic miles (1.38 billion cubic kilometers).

Click here to see more information on the amount of water in the earth.

This is what the earth looks like from space.

After you see North and South America, you will see a large area of blue.

That large blue area is the Pacific Ocean, the largest ocean in the world.


This is a map of the Pacific Ocean.

It is the largest ocean in the world.

North America is next to it in the upper-right part of this map.

Three states are right next to this ocean.

They are California, Oregon, and Washington.  Hawaii, another state, is a group of islands in this ocean.


Chapter 2.  Drought kills.


Some parts of the earth that people live on doesn't have enough water to drink.  This is called a drought.  This paragraph is on the drought page of the United States Geological Service.
A drought is a period of drier-than-normal conditions that results in water-related problems.  When rainfall is less than normal for several weeks, months, or years, the flow of streams and rivers declines, water levels in lakes and reservoirs fall, and the depth to water in wells increases.  If dry weather persists and water-supply problems develop, the dry period can become a drought.
People and animals need water to stay alive.  Every plant also needs water to stay alive, so the amount of water that is in the ground is important to plants.  If there is too much water, which can be caused by a flood, the health of the plant will suffer.  The plant may even die.  If there is not enough water, which can be caused by drought, it also hurts the ability of a plant to stay alive.  Plants, animals, and people can also die from the lack of water.


Drought in India
The plants above are sugarcane plants,
but they died from the lack of water.

Many Indian farmers have killed themselves.
In the photo below, each of these containers holds water.  These women are carrying it so their families won't go thirsty.


Their families have to make this trip every day, so that they can have water to drink, water to cook their food, and water to wash themselves and their clothes.


In the photo below, this water isn't clean, but it is the only water that his family has, so this boy has to carry it to his family, and they have to drink it and cook with it.  Carrying water to a family is done every day because families need water every day.



Drought in Africa

This photo was taken in eastern Africa in 2011.
These animals died of thirst.
The photo above shows a woman collecting water in a cup.  Each cup of water goes into the large plastic bottle, which she will carry back to her home.

This boy's family doesn't have much water, so when he needs a bath, they put him in this.

This animal hasn't had food or water in so long, you can see where all of its' bones are.

The lack of water means that the plants that it wants to eat are dead or dying,

These are the first four paragraphs of a story that was published December 4, 2015 in the Irish Times.
I am sitting here in Malawi wishing it would rain.  I am sure many of you reading this back in Ireland are wishing the exact opposite.

In Malawi the coming of the rains means as much as a warm sunny day in Ireland.  Everyone is in better form, everyone makes the most of it.  The only difference is that Malawians need the rain to survive - literally.

The rain pattern in Malawi has been changing so much over the past number of years that farmers are confused.  I am passing fields every day at the moment that are prepared and waiting to be planted.  But the rural farmers tell me that in the past, the planting would be done by now and the rains would have already begun.  And they could feel confident that they would be able to feed their families for another year.  This is no longer the case.

One day two weeks ago, it did rain for a bit and you could sense the sheer joy and relief everywhere.  But then it stopped and hasn’t come back.  And after eight years living in Zimbabwe and Malawi I think the heat this year is the worst.
This is a clickable link to the whole story.

This is a clickable link to a story that was published by Reuters on December 23, 2015 titled Southern Africa faces food shortages as El Nino drought worsen.


Three quarters of the earth's surface is water, so if some of this water can be sent to India and the African countries, their drought can end.

This can be done with the Water Cycle.


Chapter 3. The Water Cycle.

This four-step process is for elementary school students.
  1. Evaporation of the water from lakes, rivers, and the oceans
  2. Condensation of the water into a cloud
  3. Precipitation of the cloud (it's raining!)
  4. Collection (rainwater goes back into lakes, rivers, and the oceans
5. Go back to Step 1.


This diagram is for middle school students.  It is a more complete diagram because it shows water going into the ground (infiltration) and water going from the ground, through plants, into the air (transpiration).
  1. Condensation
  2. Precipitation
  3. Surface Runoff and Subsurface Outflow
  4. Evaporation and Transpiration
  5. The migraton of the clouds because of wind currents.
6. Go back to Step 1.

This is the Water Cycle from the point of view of a plant.

The precipitation can be either rain or snow.

The roots take water from the soil.

The leaves send the water into the air.
These are the parts of a Water Cycle.
  1. When clouds pass over a mountain, they leave small drops of moisture at the top of the mountain.

  2. These small drops of moisture combine into big drops, which combine into small streams of water that go down the mountain.

  3. Two or three small streams combine to form a small river.  Two or three small rivers combine to form a big river.  The map below shows how six different rivers add their water to the Mississippi River.


  1. The water in all of these rivers, as well as the water in ponds. lakes, and wetlands, is always evaporating.  The earth's heat and the sun's heat is turning all of this water into steam.  The roots of plants also collect moisture from the water that is in the ground.  This moisture is transpired through the leaves of the plant into the air, and it also becomes steam.

  2. All of this steam rises into the air, and when it is high enough, the steam condenses.  We call this condensed moisture "clouds".

  3. Wind currents move the clouds to other parts of the earth.

  4. Start over again at Step 1.

Chapter 4. The Water Cycle isn't being used in California!

There are parts of the world that do not have enough water, even though almost three-quarters of the earth's surface is covered in water.  This is even true in California.

This is recent information on the drought in California.  In the diagram on the left, the yellow areas have bad drought.  The red area has even worse drought.  The dark red area in the southwestern part of California has the very worst drought.  This is surprising, because the Pacific Ocean is right next to this state, as you can see in the diagram on the right.

The State Government doesn't manage its' water very well.
The state of California doesn't have enough water for its' people, animals, and plants, even though it is right next to the largest ocean in the world.

Not enough rain is falling in that state to allow the farmers to grow the plants that produce food.  Many different kinds of fruit and vegetables used to grow there, but now, the land is so dry, the food plants are starving for water.  Some of these plants have already died.
The photo of a farmer standing next to dead trees and the paragraph immediately below were copied from a web page on the Food and Environment Reporting Network that is dated March 25, 2015.  The clickable link to that page is right after the paragraph.
Fourth-generation Fresno Co. farmer Chris Hurd isn’t sure his farming operation will survive a fourth year of California’s historic drought.  “”I stayed alive last year,” he says,” but I’m not sure I’ll make it this year.  It’s a treacherous, sickening situation.

The sign on the fence in the other photo says, "Pray for Rain".  We should all pray that rain falls in California, so that farmer Chris Hurd and many others like him can stay alive.

These are the third and fourth paragraphs of a story on the website Think Progress that was published May 5, 2015.
Agriculture requires water, and large-scale agriculture, like that in California, requires large amounts of water.  So when Governor Brown came under fire for exempting farmers from the mandatory cuts — farmers use 80 percent of the state’s available water — he was unmoved.

“They’re not watering their lawn or taking long showers,” he told ABC’s “The Week” the Sunday after he announced the restrictions.  “They’re providing most of the fruits and vegetables of America to a significant part of the world.”

The Governor of California says that farmers in his state are providing most of the fruits and vegetables of America to a significant part of the world, but this will end unless his state can get more rain than it has had recently.

There is another reason to pray for rain in California.  Rain will help to put out the wildfires that are killing people, animals, and plants.


When there are more clouds over California, they can produce more rain.  The rain will help to end these fires.  Rain is part of the Water Cycle.


Chapter 5.

Let's cook the recipe for the Water Cycle!
List of Ingredients

  • mountains
  • river beds and lake beds
  • warm ground
  • cold air
  • wind currents
  • water
California has almost all of these ingredients.  It has mountains, river beds and lake beds, warm earth, cold air, and it has wind currents, but there is one missing ingredient.

The missing ingredient is water.  There isn't enough water inside California for the people, animals, and plants.  All of these living things are starving for water.  Some of them are dying.  Some of them have already died.

The inside of California doesn't have enough water, but there is an ocean of water outside of California.  Let's send some water from this ocean to a dry valley in eastern California.

A valley is the space between mountains.  There are different kinds of valleys.

This valley has a small river that runs through it.
This valley has a lake in between the mountains.

It also has a rainbow over the lake, caused by the refraction of the water.
Some valleys have no water at all.

The land is so dry, the sun has baked the earth, just as if it had been placed into a hot oven.
This valley is called Death Valley.

It is in between the Pinamint Mountain Range and the Amargosa Mountain Range.

This valley is 140 miles long, and it is very hot.

This animal couldn't get enough water to stay alive, so it died.

Many people, animals, and plants have died there.

Death Valley is the green area in this map.  Almost all of it is in California, but a little bit of it is in Nevada.



This is a map of the geography of Death Valley, showing the two mountain ranges that are its' east and west borders.



Most of this valley is lower than the level of the Pacific Ocean.  At its' lowest point, it is 282 feet lower than the midpoint between that ocean's high tide and low tide.

Every valley is like a bowl.  If the valley has water in it, the mountains hold the water in.  The temperature in this valley is very hot, so even when the valley has an occasional flood, the water enters the water cycle.  It evaporates, but the rainwater from the clouds always goes somewhere else because the wind moves the clouds to other parts of the area.
The video on the left shows how hot it can be here.

The temperature can be 130° F.

That's 55° Celsius.

Any time water is in this valley, it quickly evaporates.

The water becomes steam.

In most years, there is less than two inches of rainfall in this valley, but in October 2015, there was a flood.

The video on the right shows it.

It happened very quickly, so it is called a flash flood.
Since Death Valley is hundreds of feet lower than the Pacific Ocean, if there was a pipe that connected the Pacific Ocean to the valley, water from the ocean would flow through the pipe and fill the valley.  This would create a lake in between the two mountain ranges that border this valley.

The photo on the right shows different containers that hold water.  No matter what size or shape of a container is used, if water can flow from any one of these containers to another container, the water level will always be the same.

The Pacific Ocean is held inside the Pacific Basin.  Death Valley is the space between two mountain ranges.  It is also a basin.  If there was a way to transport water from the Pacific Ocean to Death Valley, it would create a lake that has the same water level as the Pacific Ocean.

A lake was created in 1946 in western Massachusetts.  People had to move out of four small towns.  After they did, engineers built a dam on the Swift River.  All of the land in those towns flooded with water.

When all this was done, the lake became a reservoir.  The Quabbin Reservoir holds drinking water for many of the people in Massachusetts to use in their homes, schools, and businesses.




A pipe, like the one shown above, could transport water from the Pacific Ocean to Death Valley.  The height of the western end of this pipe would be almost 300 feet higher than the height of the eastern end of the pipe, so water would do downhill through the pipe, and if there were some water pumps added to this pipe, water would fill up Death Valley, creating a lake.

On the right is a diagram of a water pump that is used by companies to transport large amounts of water quickly.

Engineers would decide how many pumps to install so that the valley would fill with water quickly.

In the beginning of this process, most of the water that enters the valley would become groundwater. This would allow people who live in the area to become farmers, growing food crops that would help many others in the area who are hungry.

After the valley becomes a lake, the pumps would not need to transport as much water because they would only need to replace the amount of water that would evaporate in a year.

Start the Water Cycle !!
  1. The water will form a lake
  2. Water will evaporate from that valley, forming clouds.
  3. The clouds will migrate to other parts of the area.
  4. Wherever the wind moves the clouds, it will eventually rain.
  5. When the wind moves the clouds over California, it will rain there.
  6. Go back to step 1.
The cycle can begin at any one of the steps, because it is a cycle.  Water travels all through the steps of the cycle in many parts of the world, and so, this process can take place in California, too.


Do you live in California?  Do you like eating locally-grown fruit?  Tell your friends how much you want to see fruit trees growing in California.  You'll be my Chef of the Day!

Chapter 6. The Water Cycle begins !

Step 1. The sun's heat and the earth's heat turns some of this liquid water into water vapor.

The water vapor rises into the atmosphere.
Step 2. When the water vapor is high enough in the air, it gets cold and it condenses.

It changes back into liquid, forming clouds.


Cumulus = pieces of floating cotton


Step 3. The wind blows !!

clouds animated photo clouds-rolling.gif
The wind moves the droplets of water through the atmosphere from Death Valley to other parts of the southwest.

The direction of the wind will change sometimes.

Link to a page that shows the direction of wind currents in southern California right now.

Sometimes, the water droplets in the clouds will go west from Death Valley to the areas of California that have been suffering from drought for years.
The photo below was taken in Rancho Mirage, California.  The white area is sand.  It is hard to grow anything in sand, and it is impossible to grow orange trees or grape vines in sand, so the food that these people eat must travel a long way from where it is grown to where it is consumed.



Step 4. The clouds precipitate their moisture.

It can be rain, snow, sleet, or hail in most areas of the country, but snow doesn't happen very often in California.
When the moisture falls in California, it will add water to lakes, rivers, and to groundwater.

This photo shows the Hollywood Walk of Fame during a rainstorm.
This video is a 3-D animation of a growing tree.

When there is more rainfall in California, you will see more trees growing there.

Some of these trees will have fruit on them.

California will also have more grape vines.

California will have lots of juicy fruit for its' families to eat, including oranges and grapes !

I love oranges, especially the juicy ones, and I love grapes, too!

Farmers can't grow juicy oranges and grapes unless the ground is moist.

Chapter 7. Transporting water in Ancient Rome

In 300 B.C. there were already ways to transport water across great distances. The water traveled downhill for miles before it reached the City of Rome, where people were waiting to drink it, cook with it, and take baths in it.


Sometimes, the water traveled in man-made tunnels through mountains, and other times, the water traveled across valleys on structures called aqueducts.

The photo below shows an aqueduct that was built centuries ago.


These two videos tell the history of the heroic engineering achievement that was made so that those ancient people could have water to drink.

Chapter 8. Let's Get Started !

Let's build an aqueduct, using pipes like this, from the Pacific Ocean to Death Valley.
I'm already hungry for a California orange!